It will be almost a year since my coworkers and I went to Japan last November. I’ve always wanted to go to Japan and it has been on my bucketlist for as long as I can remember so I was really excited when our boss announced that he’ll be sending us to Japan. This was also my first out-of-country ever since I went to study abroad in Xiamen way back in 2009 when I was just fourteen. Anyways, looking back, our 6 days in Japan went by real quick, it almost felt like I was dreaming when we were there.

11.11.2016 Day 1: Shinjuku, Ginza, Yurakucho

Tokyo Narita Airport.


We took the Airport Limousine Bus on our way to our hotel in Shinjuku.


Saw Tokyo Tower 🗼 on our way from Narita. I thought that I just had to go there before we leave Tokyo to Osaka (because OP feels 😭).


It took around an hour to get to our hotel in Shinjuku. We stayed in Hilton and this is our view from our hotel.


Our hotel.

DSCF2667Shinjuku Street.


It was freaking cold outside. I think it was around 10 degrees at that time.


Saw this building when we were walking and was fascinated on how tall the building was. I searched for the name of the building and realized that it was Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower, a 204-meter 50-story educational facility. According to wikipedia, it is the 2nd tallest educational building in the world and 25th tallest building in Japan.


We also rented a pocket wifi in a not-so-nearby convenience store since we forgot to rent one while we were at the airport.


It was already 4pm when we opted to have our lunch in Itamae Sushi Shinjuku.


As soon as we rented the pocket wifi, we had our lunch in this nearby resto because we were starting to feel hungry. We weren’t disappointed tho. The food tasted really good!DSCF2695.JPG15129565_1507225522625794_6478879235399697379_oDSCF2702.JPG

We still roamed around the streets of Shinjuku after we had lunch. I remember going inside on this department store and each of us bought umbrellas since it was slightly raining. After that, we road the subway going to Ginza.15994408_1585545531460459_6377530313885890100_o

We spent the rest of the night roaming around the streets of Ginza. Ginza is a high-class major shopping district in Tokyo.


The largest branch of Uniqlo in Japan. It has 12 floors!15179174_1507225665959113_7236192324612518302_n15122936_1511569735524706_6949874071285783115_o15137629_1511574262190920_4349521326055309877_o

It also houses the infamous Hattori Clock Tower in Wako Building. (I often see this in mangas I read lol).


The evening was chilly and it was only 6pm when we decided to take a rest from all the hustling and bustling and had coffee in Le Cafe Doutor.


Sipping coffee as we watched people hustle.15135992_1507225702625776_1093598155628800871_n

My officemate also suggested that we try this resto somewhere in Yurakucho, which accordingly had good reviews. It was a good long walk and we got lost as we explored our way on foot. According to Google Maps, it was supposed to only be a five-minute walk from our last stop, but we got lost on our way finding it. I don’t actually remember the name of the establishment where we dined in but I do remember walking underneath train tracks, tunnels and alleyways.

Lol at the unnamed roads.


Lol at us struggling to find the place. I remember walking around in circles!

15122863_1511579552190391_8815277109109145444_o15137425_1511594452188901_5894311336175202551_o15167648_1511594328855580_1375367212806464598_oWe went back to the hotel via taxi afterwards. We were surprised to find out that traffics here were infrequent. And also, taxi doors open automatically lol. 15235371_1511576165524063_5968302011004324680_o


11.12.2016 Day 2: Asakusa, Shibuya, Harajuku

The next day, we went to the infamous Sensoji Temple in Asakusa, which is also known as the oldest temple in Tokyo.16107109_1585553794792966_7274113598690207038_oWe went from Shinjuku Station to Asakusa via the JR line.15972751_1585551741459838_7943486504726765049_o15591084_1585542591460753_6438842150657964828_o.jpg

It would have been quite a walk from our hotel to the Shinjuku Station but luckily, we found out that Hilton actually has a shuttle bus which could take us directly to the station.

Waiting for our bus.

While inside the bus, I couldn’t help but take photos of the beautiful surroundings of Japan.


I didn’t expect to see a lot of people flocking in and out the temple. It was really crowded.15123062_1511674315514248_6285456780382223237_o15168785_1511674485514231_4610694590959930322_o15123446_1511674808847532_2030143887029131423_o.jpg15168823_1511674965514183_3092784759013308570_oWe also happened to try the Omikuji Paper Fortune which only cost 100Yen. DSCF2807.JPGDisappointed, I had terrible luck and drew an awfully bad fortune. 😭DSCF2804.JPG15156890_1511677508847262_6774700828113797532_oDSCF2863I saw a lot of locals wearing traditional kimonos as they strolled through the streets of Asakusa. There’s actually a kimono store nearby wherein you can rent them for a day but we opted not to since we didn’t plan on staying in Asakusa for so long.15078634_1507227745958905_8751697295873338225_n15027585_1507227415958938_7277008619147437431_n16114905_1585553691459643_7978170646146635627_n14732352_1507227225958957_5727963872049893598_n

They sell a wide variety of Japanese fans, Katana swords, etc. All of which are some of the cool things to buy in Japan while you’re at it – that is, if you’re a fan of the Japanese martial arts.14054293_1511675512180795_8405709079290535752_o15194344_1511675402180806_3897877536080414251_o15167735_1511676055514074_7766927871731710425_o

We tried this one since this drew the most attention plus it’s only around Php80 when you convert it. I’m not sure what it’s called but losta people were actually lining up for this street snack. To be honest, it wasn’t as good as people hyped them up to be. It has a sweet taste but the sauce was super sticky and it can get all over the place.


We also often get dehydrated after all the walking lol. But we didn’t have to worry because vending machines could be found almost everywhere. They’re all over the place. A bottled water costs ¥100 or equivalent to Php45.

15994418_1585555588126120_8603712734437464704_o.jpgAfter leaving the temple grounds, we decided to do a little detour and go to Tokyo Sky Tree because we all thought that it was already very nearby since the tower was already visible when we were roaming around the streets in Asakusa. 16113441_1585552624793083_5887969952416605046_o.jpg15965781_1585553551459657_5076272400751143706_n.jpgDSCF2789.JPGOn our way, we discovered that there was a Studio Ghibli store. My sister wanted a Totoro music box as a souvenir. When I entered the shop, I was lucky enough to find a music box. I didn’t want to let the chance slip through my fingers when it was already right in front of me so I bought it right away. I got her this one, which was around ¥5,000.


We had a chance to walk past Azumbashi Bridge in Asakusa which was only a walking distance from Sensoji Temple. Our itinerary didn’t even include Sky Tree at all. Our next stop should have been Meiji Jingu, but whatever, curiosity kills the cat! The Sky Tree just drew all of our attention towards it.15179182_1507228772625469_8088367760978340100_nI saw this one passed by under the bridge but I’ve actually no idea on what type of marine vessel it was lol. 15094385_1507231342625212_3692161243485884659_n (1)After crossing the bridge, we rested for a while in the Sumida Park. This was also the last time we got to get a glimpse of the Sky Tree and the closest to where we could get to it. My officemate told us that it still seemed quite far if we walked from where we were so we got back to our original itinerary – which was Meiji Jingu. 15138328_1511678875513792_1365704279794282735_oGoodbye Sky Tree! I’ll visit you when I get a chance!15230722_1511589972189349_4768997435594266303_n

To get us on track, we rode the subway station. Lol at us eyeing those cold drinks vending machines!15123258_1511590035522676_5505918663597985246_o15123365_1511590288855984_7696976988761713338_oI recommend trying this one. It’s cheap but the flavor’s good. Fun fact: Did you know that Georgia Coffee is the world’s highest-grossing, ready-to-drink coffee brand? According to wiki, it was launched in 1975 by Coca-Cola (Japan), named after Coca-Cola’s home state of Georgia. It has since expanded to markets in Singapore, South Korea, India, Bahrain, and the U.S. And they don’t have this in the Philippines.15037291_1507234532624893_8085338589508608986_n


Unfortunately tho! It was already closed by the time we got there. It was 5pm and I think the place closes at 4pm. Lol super fail.15129415_1507237262624620_2361748174352753083_oDSCF2928.JPG

We went to ride a cab going to Harajuku afterwards. My officemate really wanted to check some place out. She told us that she just couldn’t afford to miss it.15037137_1507238122624534_4875521741418021417_n.jpgWe found out that she was particularly interested in shoes. There were quite a number of shoe stores and they sell a wide variety of brands/models/colors, etc. Most of them were discounted too. I’m not quite a fan of shoes in particular and we were only on the second day so I urged myself not to splurge.


We also tried Eggs n’ Things. And we had pancakes for dinner lol.Capture.PNGBut boi was the line long! I think we waited for around 45 minutes just to get in. At first we were supposed to stay outside the resto but we requested to eat inside since it was really cold (but not as cold as the first day).15994374_1585541771460835_8859565699633431784_o.jpgAfter eating, we rode a cab again and went to the infamous Shibuya! As soon as our driver dropped us off, we were amazed on how bright the city lights were!16113361_1585542118127467_7901849539838554560_o.jpgAnd you know what happens next? We took multiple photos of us crossing the streets non-stop lol! We were all jiddy and happy, and we’ve never been this excited to cross a street! I’ve a video stored in my phone but I can only posts photos here so-15056221_1507240462624300_8732148229416341562_n15037123_1507239782624368_764228295808339666_n15178218_1507239449291068_3400587148703414444_nI think we’ve crossed the streets a dozen of times but we weren’t the only ones.  15156745_1507242735957406_1371736707619031838_o15975310_1585553134793032_1985509924065366736_oWe saw a woman in a long red gown having her pictures taken while she was crossing the streets of Shibuya. I think it took around 30 mins or so since we spotted her from the moment we stayed in Starbucks until we decided to go home. (Tho it isn’t in the picture)15171049_1507247092623637_7512743628824301075_nForeigners stopping by to have their pictures taken ob the Shibuya Crossing seemed pretty normal to the locals there. I’m sure they’re already very used to seeing them.15195990_1511681832180163_147239109688812181_o.jpg

11.13.2016 Day 3: Meiji Shrine, Tokyo Disney Sea, Tokyo Tower

Since we weren’t able to go to Meiji Jingu Shrine on our second day, our itinerary for the third day was to immediately head to the Meiji Shrine, where we spent the rest of the morning in.


Meiji Jingu is a Shinto shrine founded in 1920 dedicated to the defied spirits of Emperor Meiji and his wife. Inside, we spotted a huge collection of sake barrels.


Everything felt peaceful at that time. The weather was cool yet bright and sunny.15039457_1507255849289428_1246195016610488184_o.jpgDSCF3437

As with the case in Sensoji, there were lots of people especially kids in kimonos.15138360_1511688935512786_287078284613416635_o15167552_1511688442179502_2676465940934510561_o15129591_1507257032622643_7362031142266243362_o15167635_1511689638846049_4819551183582396080_o

This practice is called Omairi.DSCF347115167660_1511689095512770_4302584037929069549_o.jpg

For ¥100, we tried Ohmi Gokoro, a waka poem card composed by Emperor Meiji or Empress Shoken.DSCF3522

“Amidst the raging storms of life, never flinch o heart of man- No more than the wind-tossed pine deep-rooted in the rock.” – Emperor Meiji. This was what I needed after getting a bad omen from our previous trip to Sensoji Temple. 😭15167500_1507257335955946_3422382639353694298_o.jpg

Traditional Japanese Shinto wedding procession at Meiji Jingu.DSCF3551

We also wrote our own personal prayers and wishes.DSCF3579DSCF3582DSCF3588

It looks so magical from the inside.DSCF359315138344_1507258885955791_2312557320493310819_o.jpg15110959_1511691935512486_4086458402227524299_o

We tried their Takoyaki too and it was the best one I’ve ever tasted! Ever since we came back in the Philippines, the takoyakis in Japanese restos here can’t even compare lol. I miss it a lot.DSCF3605

For our next destination, we headed to Tokyo Disney. There were several train transfers in order to get to Tokyo Disney.


We unintentionally arrived at Tokyo Disneyland when Tokyo Disney Sea was our actual destination. 15122978_1511694862178860_5879804429157415900_oDSCF3633

Upon arriving in the ticket booth, we were advised to take the train in order to get to Tokyo Disney Sea. DSCF363915068467_1507263815955298_2508330736766212154_o

At Tokyo Disney Sea where we just roamed around and strolled. Unanimously, we agreed to just go all out in Universal Studios when we go to Osaka. In our opinion, the rides were more child-friendly here.DSCF364115137574_1507271975954482_3636338584968938972_oDSCF3653DSCF3655DSCF3660DSCF3661DSCF3675DSCF3678DSCF369515167584_1511696742178672_1007538169785363360_o.jpg

This is the line for the train ride which lets you see all the attractions inside Disney Sea. DSCF3702

We actually just spent an hour inside since we still had to go to Tokyo Tower in Minato.

It looks so pretty even from afar! 15168637_1511697622178584_1069542010363530736_o

And this is what the tower looks like up close!15123013_1507275142620832_1364750347349512104_o15129589_1507304122617934_2798051276243733531_o

Tokyo Tower wasn’t really included in the itinerary set by our boss. But to heck with that lol! I told my co-workers that I wanted to go to Tokyo Tower when we were having breakfast in the hotel. I confessed that I could even miss not going to Tokyo Disney Sea just to see Tokyo Tower. I reassured them that I can manage myself to go there alone. I actually spent studying how I could get there before I went to sleep the night before. I just couldn’t miss this opportunity.

The reason?

Tokyo Tower houses an official One Piece Mugiwara shop plus a mini-indoor theme park. Unfortunately, by the time we arrived and purchased our tickets, we were told that we were late by 5 minutes, so by the time we got there, the theme park was already closed.

However, we were still glad to find out that the observatory and the official shop were still open.



I bought a lot of merchandise goods from the store – posters, magnets, painting from the author itself, Thousand Sunny Ship Model (which I haven’t assembled yet until now) figurines, and mugs for me and my friend. Basically, OP haul!


I was the happiest kid on earth lol!15138299_1507291325952547_5871758241792555066_o15110902_1507298452618501_5456268449653039777_o

Btw, we were also lucky to have seen and witnessed One Piece Snow Globe in front of the main entrance of Tokyo Tower, which only lasted for 3 months from November until February. Accordingly, this was the biggest snow globe in the country with a diameter of 6m. This is in the motif of the episode, “Bloom in Winter, Miracle Sakura.” I crai it was so beautiful and I was touched. 😭 I don’t know – it might be because I suddenly remembered that episode or maybe it was because of the sounds. But at that time, seeing it made me really emotional lol.


After Tokyo Tower, my co-worker found a lounge wherein we could have our dinner. It was our last night in Tokyo so we all agreed that it was okay to try out a fancy restaurant. DSCF3766.JPG

We dined at The Sky Lounge Stellar Garden located at the 33th floor Prince Park Tower Tokyo Hotel.

Panoramic view from where we were seated at the bar counter.

It offers a really nice view but the food was super expensive.

15156882_1507316375950042_4325498503975765007_oDrinks were okay.15138537_1507310819283931_1852183817149540411_o15137669_1507316445950035_5396457218779683405_o

Downside was that we looked out of place and the service wasn’t good. The bar tenders kept on staring at us, and were talking amongst themselves, perhaps wondering how a bunch of young kids in their 20s something be there. I mean, we were surrounded by a lot of older men, mostly Indians in their suits (probably businessmen) in their 40s.


11.14.2016 Day 4: Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building, Osaka

Our room on our last day.


We began to pack even before we went to Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building.DSCF3786

Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building is just a walking distance away from our hotel. And it’s the tallest building in Shinjuku.DSCF3808

This is the view from the 45th floor. Accordingly, on a clear day, one can even see Mt. Fuji. Unfortunately, the skies were a little bit too dark when we visited.15167537_1507328652615481_2954865035436118410_o15068995_1507330085948671_5174777227955447309_o15111071_1507332722615074_8600907171327985846_o15123344_1507339882614358_4873998554026258425_o

Local bread store when we were on our way to Osaka from Tokyo.


I recommend trying their melon bread. It’s so good!15123002_1507360845945595_2520979011634595624_o

Total fare from Tokyo to Osaka via Shinkansen was ¥ 19,230 or roughly equivalent to P 8,700.15068445_1507361269278886_1573053599269402781_o15138335_1507361879278825_5376008943303252811_o (1).jpg

Shinkansen, which runs at an average speed of 320kph is one of the fastest high-speed trains in the world and also holds a perfect safety record. We left Tokyo by 3pm and arrived in Osaka by around 5:30pm. (We actually got a difficult time transferring lines and messed up at the last minute so we had to rebook our schedule – we originally had to leave by 2pm.)


This is the view from the inside.15138443_1507362202612126_6937884640677926829_o15068937_1507362479278765_1403351412950382240_o

My officemate playing Pokemon Go lol.

We stayed in Hilton Osaka and this is our room. We opted for the traditional type of room this time.


We went to Dotonbori on our first night. That night, it was so cold since it was raining.


Since it was raining, we went to eat inside first. DSCF3849DSCF3857DSCF3859





We also shopped around for a bit before we went home. The color looks good so I bought this one for my sisters.


11.15.2016 Day 5: Fushimi Inari-Taisha, Kyoto


As usual, we saw lots of locals in their kimonos.


Also, there were a lot of students who visited the Shrine when we went there too.15129407_1511709478844065_4110951086426492801_o

Clearly, Fushimi Inari is the head shrine of Inari in southern Kyoto. It is famous for its thousand torii gates.


I couldn’t imagine seeing it in real life since I was used to only get to witness this infamous shrine when I watch animes.



I believe that from here, this is already overlooking Kyoto. And from this point, we were starting to feel exhausted. 15235569_1511725665509113_4881841489101883372_o

But we continued to explore our way up the trails a bit more.


When we reached the Yotsutsuji intersection, we rested for a bit.


Where we happened to talked and met a local who climbed all the way Mt. Inari just to play Pokemon Go lol. He even showed me some of his Pokemon collections ㅋㅋ.15259288_1516854608329552_8106493343060748971_o

By this time, we decided not to continue and walk our way back down the mountain. Accordingly, the trails also do not offer much variation beyond said intersection. Plus, it was beginning to rain and it wouldn’t be a great idea to spend our time until evening here.15168801_1516855781662768_3188958207016364291_o.jpg15235846_1516865488328464_1810984977300712308_o15288580_1516883471659999_5346256680682709019_o15271828_1516888358326177_8504796321787391851_o15194513_1516889921659354_7556646303901287112_o

We decided to head back to Osaka by this time.

Waiting for our train.

We spent the rest of the night in Dotonbori.


Where we chose to dine in Matstukagyu Yakiniku M.


It was also very cozy inside since you get to eat inside a private room all by yourself.15235704_1516925151655831_4309665979529831559_o.jpg

The three of us ordered a premium course. Their beef was the best one that I’ve tasted from all the places that we’ve tried in our whole stay in Japan. Definitely recommended!DSCF4037DSCF4039

I had a slight migraine at that time when they asked me what beer I wanted to try. I passed and just enjoyed my meat.15259246_1516937621654584_7201084730627615325_o.jpg

11.16.2016 Day 6: Universal Studios Japan

We spent the whole day in the Universal Studios in Osaka, Japan.

15168743_1516946204987059_7913340672929896412_o.jpgBtw, the Japanese were in a craze for all things minion-related lol.15259221_1516947378320275_2862841566549645930_o15068997_1516948171653529_3766077022389414877_o15289164_1516951271653219_8045860414481107438_o15289275_1516952128319800_6089344342968773584_o15235731_1516952374986442_3087560523917339620_o15272316_1516952648319748_3959297514901327932_o15250719_1516953528319660_4623111624913960290_o

The minions were the trend.15259200_1516953358319677_7060879436059905079_o15259285_1516953768319636_1947236863346683899_o15289067_1516954758319537_4724977860719879108_o15137525_1516956998319313_7855936697850786580_o.jpg


1. Jurrasic Park: The Flying Dinosaur – We could hear the screams from all the way up. The line was also hella long. Tbh, I’m not really a fun of extreme/ thrill rides but my co-workers wanted to try it so I joined them. Plus, there were younger kids and oldies as well so I was able to muster up my courage after seeing them kinds of crowds.


We were screaming and swearing at the same time all throughout the ride but it was crazy fun lol. 15252541_1516955744986105_2837203345882606274_o

I survived The Flying Dinosaur!15194422_1516956014986078_2497407988007649876_o

We also saw this lone T-rex scaring people around.


We stopped to eat ice cream in Baskin first before we went on to our next ride.


2. Jaws

The special effects and acting were amazing. If you don’t want to get wet, I recommend seating on the right side instead lol.


Passed by Mel’s Drive-In on our way to the World of Harry Potter.


3. The Forbidden Journey – I have to admit that I’m really not a big fan of Harry Potter and the line got super long but it was worth it. The experience felt incredible and the closest one here in the Philippines is when you watch Imax 4D in MOA lol.


By nighttime, we went exploring around the area near our hotel. We first went to Yodabashi in Umeda, then went on our own separate ways since we all had different places we wanted to visit. I went to Grand Front Osaka as well as Daimaru where I found out that they had a Pokemon Center. My sister wanted me to buy her a Pokemon when I get to visit a Pokemon Center so I took the chance to check it out.


I bought 2 of them.



11.17.2016 Day 7: Dotonbori

For our last day in Osaka, we decided to still go on our separate ways. I headed to Dotonbori as soon as we were finished with our breakfast while they still explored around within the hotel vicinity. We just had to make sure that we were back in our hotel by 12nn.

Since it was our last day, I still had enough pocket money with me so I decided to buy lotsa pasalubongs. I chose to buy a bag for my mom, a running shoes for my dad, teas for the oldies, coffee and grounded beans for my siblings, parents and aunts, hoarded make up for my sisters and lotsa sweets – chocolates, and candies and magnets – the usual. I didn’t realize that I’ve already bought a lot of stuff until I felt that what I was carrying was getting stared at lol. I even had a trouble packing my things since I had completely filled our 30kg luggage just with the pasalubongs lmao. My officemate was shocked to see me carrying a heavy load full of stuff.



This summarizes our trip in Japan, where we spent a total of 6 days in Tokyo and Osaka last November.

What a long post!



Finally! Am done reviewing, editing, and finalizing everything on this group’s MFIMET2 homework. Time to doze off. (It’s 4:49 am now)Tho, I only have an hour and 20 minutes left before I wake up soon again before going to school. Shucks! -_-

RIP Phone!

I just lost my third phone this college.

Last Thursday, after my grad pictorial, I went to the comfort room to pee, and remove my make up afterwards ( I don’t like wearing heavy make up. Oh dear, no.) When I was about to pee, my 6 month old phone fell plunging down to the toilet. Funny cuz, the night before, when my friend’s blockmate and I were going home from school on our way to LRT2, I told her about how my bag slipped and fell on the toilet and I haven’t flushed the pee of whomever it was. She then told me that her cousin’s phone also fell into a toilet when smartphones weren’t invented yet.

Anyways, I found myself almost crying cuz I bought it with my own money. And I even took a loan from my sister in order to pay the half amount. D: Until now, I haven’t paid her in full. xD I oughta pay her right after I graduate, which is only 2 terms away, btw! o.O xD

I forced myself to pick it up from the toilet after 5 seconds or so. Disassembled it and dried it with tissue. I tried turning it on but it wouldn’t. I have such bad luck to begin with. D: Anyways, I’m borrowing my sister’s phone right now even tho I have another phone. My dad and bro brought it in SM Mega the last time Dad visited us here in Manila. But I don’t want to bring it with me to school ever since I’ve experienced my phone getting stolen in the LRT. 4N, 6S, 1N, 2S, 3N. xD

Something I found a while ago. I can’t really understand what I was saying when I’ve just read this. Lol whut. This was for our macro paper. TROLOLOL!

Strategies for Economic Development


This section will be divided into three segments which will present strategies needed to be employed and pursued by the Philippines while also showcasing some issues and attempts made by the country in the past; 1) Agriculture or Industry , 2) Export or Import Substitution , and 3) Central Planning or Free Markets.


Agriculture or Industry?


Like many other developing nations, the Philippines continually dreams of becoming a Tiger Country yet again. With the first tradeoff presented, in which a developing country must choose whether to preserve its economy as a raw material producer, or to operationalize industrialization, the country is sure to be better off if it chooses industrialization over the former. It is obviously the ideal and logical choice. Although there are cases in which industrialization has not brought the benefits that were expected, like in the case of China whose Industry Percentage of its GDP was 49% during 1998, its per capita income only remained at $750 compared to that of U.S. whose Industry Percentage was only 26% yet its per capita income was $29,240, the Philippines could reduce its heavy dependence on the agricultural sector, providing the country with financial affluence, self-sufficiency, employment, and World Leadership in the long run.


We have seen many of our neighboring countries like Singapore, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea in progressing towards becoming an industrialized state by adopting and implementing real industrialization programs. But why has the Philippines chronically lagged in terms of adopting industrialization? Was there any possible misconduct or wrong decisions made ​​in the past by the Philippines which doomed it to never transform the economy into an industrial state and hence, remain as a raw material economy? How has the Philippines during the 1950’s attained its position as the “best performing Third World economy in the Far East, and rated only “second to Japan””?


To answer the first question, Article XII, Sec. 1, par.2 of the Constitution is the “mortal factor which guarantees that the Philippines shall never transform into an industrial state and graduate to Newly Industrialized Country Status” (Cited in Lichauco, Hunger, Corruption, and Betrayal in the Philippines). Under the provision, “the State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform”. These industries are furniture and carpentry, rice milling, making fertilizer out of animal waste, etc. No engineering nor machine tool and metal industry because such industries have no connection whatsoever with agriculture and land reform (Lichauco). This kind of industrialization, which constitute the core of any industrialization program, on the basis of metal and machine power, will be considered unconstitutional. No president after Marcos pursued any industrialization program because to do so would be unconstitutional.


For the second question, by allowing the U.S., being a neo-colonialist state, to politically and economically control our government by means of intervening with the electoral process of the Philippines and subsequently making the candidate a subordinate, has paved way for the Philippines’ “puppet government”. There were many former Philippine Presidents who have served as a collaborator of the United States such were the case of Manuel Roxas, Ramon Magsaysay, Diosdado Macapagal, and Corazon Aquino who conformed to the ideals and motives of U.S. with intervening in the sovereignty of the Philippines by the former’s various programs and policies which have kept our country from industrializing. According to Lichauco, what created the Philippines as America’s neocolony was the Bell Trade Act of 1946. Some of the conditionalities presented was “to allow U.S. citizens the right to exploit the nation’s natural resources and operate public utilities”, and extension of free trade. This policy ended up as a destruction of the country’s economic sovereignty and hence, caused the economy to plunder, making it more impossible to industrialize.


There should be a revision on the Constitution regarding our country’s industrialization which should be based on machine power to produce the means of production.


Export or Import Substitution?


According to Case, Fair, Import Substitution is “an industrial trade strategy that favors developing local industries that can manufacture goods to replace imports”. This promotes and values economic independence from other states and protect a nation’s internal market. For the group, this strategy is more favorable for a developing nation like the Philippines than the other. Although there are many arguments combated with this kind of strategy, one counterargument is to present a valid example to show that this strategy does not always fail.


To answer the third question aforementioned during the deliberation on whether to adopt an agricultural or industrialized economy, which was previously unanswered, the only reason why the Philippines has attained its “Best Performing Third World Economy” position and rated “Second to Japan” during the 1950s was mainly because of the former President Garcia’s Filipino First Policy. He concentrated on “training” Filipino manufacturers in producing final goods for the Filipinos. With this policy, Garcia ensured to protect its economy from being overtaken by the influx of iniquitous supply of foreign goods. This paved way for local industries and entrepreneurs to make it big in the business industry. Moreover, Filipino businessmen contributed a substantial amount/percentage to the country’s overall GDP and not the foreign investors.


Central Planning or Free Markets?


Central Planning lies in its “ability to channel savings into productive investment and coordinate economic activities that otherwise might not exist(Case, Fair 2002).” This would be the more appropriate strategy for the country to adopt as this would enhance the growth of our economy towards maturity by intensively and carefully planning the country’s future potential performance. Although it is more difficult to administer compared to free markets recommended by international agencies, whose reforms included the elimination of price controls, privatization of state-run enterprises, and reductions in import restraints, the former is still more reliable.


The group would like to emphasize on the last reform presented which is the reduction in import restraints which already happened during the implementation of the Bell Act of 1946, which was then barricaded during Garcia’s administration(1957-1961) by implementing the Filipino First Policy and system controls, which was subsequently dismantled by presidents after him- Macapagal, a collaborator, through his Decontrol Program, and Aquino, also a collaborator, through her Import Liberalization Program, and presidents after like Ramos and Estrada. With these programs taken into course, the economic fate of the Philippines was doomed to repeat the historic results underlying the Bell Trade Act of 1946. These hastened the influx of import demands in the country under which there were no quota, nor tariffs required for these foreign goods to enter. As a result, with the exorbitant supply of import goods, the Philippine economy became too grossly dependent on them; the Philippines never produced nor manufactured domestic goods. With that said, the case goes if the Philippines were to adopt a Free Market.


Consequently, the strategies for economic development for a developing country like the Philippines should be to operationalize industrialization, while opting for import substitution, and concentration on central planning.

FInally done with homework!



After 2 hours, I’m finally done with it. xD Our prof hasn’t even taught us on how to use Gretl. Glad that I was able to get the right answer, I think? Right now, I’m only gonna interpret the results. It’s 2:16 am right now, and I have to wake up at 5am later. Ohwellz. I’m used to it. And that’s just how college life works. xD